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“The comparative analysis of the performance comparisons, and other rhetorical devices in speeches of presidents of the Russian Federation and the United States of America.”

Political activity has always played a special role in society. Of a particular political position or situation depends place in the international arena, its relations with other states, its role in the world community. Important role in determining the country’s image is given a process for its presentation of the political leaders of the state. Through policy interventions have the opportunity to appeal to the international community as well as to the citizens of their country.
Policy speech – well-planned action, which requires a long and careful preparation. This is a complicated process, because most of the policies in the speech should not only inform the audience about some aspect of public life, but, more importantly, to woo the audience, to influence it, to convince the audience to take a particular position, as well as enlist the support of citizens. Analyzing the speech of world political leaders can identify rhetorical and stylistic techniques that they use to convince the audience.
Relevance of the topic is that in modern life increases the expressiveness of modern political speech. Previously, the importance of presenting “political correctness” of the text, that the content of the dominant ideology, now comes to the forefront the desire for expression of speech. Individual style and brightness ways of expression are valued more than political correctness, and clarity of the text.
Purpose – to determine the functioning of the category comparisons political rhetoric on the example of speech of American and Russian presidents.
In accordance with the purpose identified the following research objectives:
1. Study the theoretical aspects of modern political communication.
2. Analyze the features of modern political discourse.
3. Analyze the use of various means of expression of political rhetoric.
4. Analyze the use of different types of comparisons in the political rhetoric.
5. Conduct a comparative analysis of the performance comparisons, and other rhetorical devices in speeches of presidents of Russia and the United States as an example of speeches of Dmitry Medvedev, Vladimir Putin, George Bush and Barack Obama.
The subject of the study – the political discourse of the Russian and U.S..
Object of study – stylistic category comparison speeches of presidents of Russia and the U.S. as a means of expression of political discourse.
The theoretical significance lies in the fact that the results obtained in the course of the results and findings will contribute to a deeper understanding of the political dikskursa and will help in further research on the use of means of expression, in particular comparisons and comparative revolutions in political rhetoric.
The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that the results and developed materials may be useful in developing a theoretical basis for the course of sociolinguistics, stylistics, linguistics, the department of foreign languages, journalism, sociology, etc.
Structure: introduction, two chapters, conclusion, list of references, applications.

CHAPTER 1: Theoretical foundations of modern political communication

1.1 Features of contemporary political discourse

In today’s presentation of political communication is a very special area, which is closely linked to the social and political structure of society. Policy been stable, and therefore political language is the primary means of influence on social behavior. This is the importance of the study of the modern language policy.
Political discourse – the main link in the political and social activities of people. [44, c.25]
Discourse (Fr. discours, Eng. Discourse <= lat. Discursus ‘Run back and forth, movement, circulation’ / / fr., Eng. – ‘Talk, talk’).
In modern linguistics to political discourse means connected, verbal expression of the text (oral or written) in conjunction with pragmatic, socio-cultural, psychological, and other circumstances of its production. This, above all, a political event, which interact politicians seeking to influence opinion and partner audiences. Political discourse is a means of creating a political consciousness. The main characteristics of political discourse: evaluation, the intention of the struggle for power, dialogic, emotion, mock. [44, c.26]
On the concept of AN Baranov and EG Kazakevich political discourse constitutes the “totality of all speech acts used in political discussions, as well as rules of public policy-honored tradition and proven experience” [11, p.6]. In political discourse, communication is not between specific people, and between the same or different social institutions.
Political discourse – is a certain sign system. VZ Demyankov believes that political language is different from the usual in that it:
– Terminologichna political lexicon, and ordinary, not purely “political” linguistic signs used are not always the same as in ordinary language;
– The specific structure of discourse – the result is sometimes very distinctive voice receptions;
– Implementation of specific and discourse – sound or written its design.
Social mission of political discourse – to inspire recipients (citizens community) need to “politically correct” actions and / or assessments.
Some scholars have questioned the existence of the phenomenon of political discourse, considering that the language of political discourse features of originality are few and not so easy identifiable, and the usual lexical and grammatical markers, which can be identified as a kind of political discourse phenomenon, do not go beyond the relevant idioetnicheskih languages. According to PB Parshin, a political language means the language or not, at least not entirely, and not just the language. He puts forward the idea that the object of linguistics is idiopolitichesky political discourse, ie “Uniqueness of what, how, who and what he is talking about a particular subject of political action.” [14, c.46]
In modern domestic political linguistics, there are several lines of research of the political discourse.
Significant contribution to the study of political communication is made AK Michalski. Problem of the relationship of speech and the power of its study in terms of comparative historical rhetoric involving material media. AK Mikhalskaya said: “If the politicians of previous eras it was necessary first of all mastery of the art of public speaking (oratory), to the modern political leader is not enough. Is also required, and perhaps above all, the skill of the public dialogue. “[49, c.57-59] In the context of approaches to the study of political speech designed AK Michalski, explore contemporary political communication MV Kitaygorodskaya and NN Rozanov.
Social mission of political discourse is to inspire recipients – community citizens – need a “politically correct” actions and opinions. That is the purpose of political discourse – make sure to awaken the audience intentions inspire action. Therefore, the effectiveness of political discourse can be defined with respect to this goal. This policy is a system of certain characters, and its success is predetermined by how these characters are in tune with the popular consciousness: the politician must be able to raise the required string in this consciousness, saying the policy must meet the common opinions and estimates of its recipients, “consumers” of political discourse. [52 , c.168]
The basic tools of political discourse – argumentation and persuasion. [33, c.126]]
Sometimes it is better to make it clear that the position in favor of which he spoke is in the interest of the audience. Protecting those interests, we can influence the emotions, playing on a sense of duty, on the other moral systems. Even more clever move – when hiding behind the cloak in the presence of someone, do not expect a straight line to work on anyone’s mind, just thinking out loud in front of witnesses, or, say, putting forward arguments in favor of a particular position, trying – on the contrary – Make sure that it is quite the opposite of the thesis, etc.
From the start, a speaker must make contact with the audience. To him it was evidence of mutual understanding and support, he must win his first real sense of trust and respect of the public, which then must be maintained throughout the entire performance.
In persuasive speech is paramount influence on the thoughts or behavior of listeners. A policy is a combination of arguments in order to convince them that they should believe or act as the speaker wants. Distinctive aspect of persuasive speech is a deliberate intention to provoke a change of mind of the speaker to listen to what is the ultimate goal of this type of communication.
Persuasive speech trying to motivate, to change opinion or strengthen existing beliefs, and aims to encourage the listener to act. To inspire people to action, students need to be emotionally involved.
The main objective of a successful policy speech, which he puts in front of him during his speech, it is interested in listening to the word, that is to make the most expressive political discourse. [11]
Political speech language uses various means to determine the effect on the audience. The process of preparing presentation usually consists of several stages: the written text of the speech is always consistent, in the final edits are made, are placed the necessary emphasis. Speeches should be enduring and leave a good impression. Hence the use of a large number of different linguistic stylistic means. [16, c.9]
The main component of the public political speech – speech. Protocol (or, as it is called, the framework) – speech, framing the event: this greeting, the response word, a parting word, speech at the presentation. From choosing a style of speech depends on a set of language tools and techniques used in it.
The main components of a welcome speech opening the event, greeting the audience, the presentation of speakers, and in the end – thanks to substantiate this gratitude, the closing words of the event and a farewell to the audience.
Speech at the presentation may contain the following semantic components: greeting, an occasion for the utterance of speech, an appeal to the audience as the audience interested and highly qualified individuals, thanks to organizers of the presentation or the host party and thanking VIPs for participation from major sponsors, a brief description of the subject, an outline for the presentation, which emphasized the importance of the event.
Funeral speech pronounced at parting with a colleague. Usually contains the words of farewell and as an indispensable component of speech, which set out the merits of the deceased and the value of its work.
The reason for the oration is an event (holiday, birthday, awarding badges, official meetings, etc.).
The purpose of oration – pleasure recipient speech. The literature on the rhetoric offered oration following components:
– A reason for the utterance of speech;
– Transfer of important moments in life hero of the day;
– Brief description of the most significant of its features;
– Focus on the positive, the good side of his personality;
– Bringing the best examples of his life;
– The story of events in which the speaker personally interacted with the hero of the day;
– A story about the importance of jubilee for the organization (company) in which it operates;
– An expression of gratitude for the participation, contribution to something meaningful;
– A statement of good wishes for the future.
Informal speech – in a friendly circle – used in an informal public setting, and above all it is a drinking (toast speech). This statement does not require unity development combines the serious and earnest, truth and fiction, contains exaggerations, contains a lot of personal, contains self-irony narrator, contains humorous attacks on one group or another.)
Set of linguistic resources, as we have already noted, in different types of public political speeches may vary, but some common features where we can celebrate. Usually first thought up the backbone of public speaking, which is then strung some arguments and facts, then add imaginative and expressive means of language, introduced at the end of any “surprise” – a firm linguistic sign of a politician. The most common pattern, in which to build it – a kind of “home.” Roof – the main point, the windows – three arguments to justify it (the two can not be convinced, and four forgotten), the foundation – the examples and figures.
Thus, the public political speech is not only an official policy statement, but to some extent it “language person”, which in turn works to create a certain image. Performances in public – it’s a good way to not only express themselves, but to make competent and brilliant speech of his “calling card”, a kind of “brand name” of a policy. And not the least, and often one of the most important roles are played by the right choices and prudent use of certain stylistic linguistic resources, including lexical speech.

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1.2 Linguistic means of expression in the political discourse and their effect on the audience.

The current political discourse is characterized personal orientation and emotionally charged. Expressive speech sometimes is a leading tool to attract the audience’s attention. [47, c.97]
The emotional impact of the speaker’s speech reflected a deliberate selection of forming a special “rhetorical style”, which is based on linguistic forms – units of the lexical and syntactic levels, and their semantic and stylistic combinations that appeal primarily to the emotional structure of the human psyche, and the impact the unconscious parts of the speech perception. According to experts, emotional form of expression changes the whole scheme of speech perception, working on the mechanisms of thinking, memory, attention, facilitating the introduction of information into consciousness recipient, thus creating social and psychological effects of suggestion and emotional challenge (contagious) – the leading mechanisms of psychological pressure.
Emotional and expressive forms of speech listeners interpreted as a value, personal attitude speaker to objects, events, or event in question, helping to break down barriers critical perception of content, creating an atmosphere of “communication.”
Establishment of a “community” of social relationships, estimates, beliefs, attitudes speaker and the audience behind the image formation is achieved primarily through the active use of the so-called “loaded language”, that is, linguistic resources, especially vocabulary, which is characterized by a wide spectrum of condensed meaning, emotional, ideological and political connotations. With konnotirovannoy vocabulary speaker sets common value judgments to the audience, “switching” assessment with a word on the way, “attributing” his certain positive qualities, creating an understanding of the ideological and psychological traits of self.
Emotional and expressive means can be divided into two groups [21, c.58]
1. attitudinal words (“affektivy”) – emotional amplifiers, addressed to the audience, and value judgments can “assign” the speaker several personal properties axiological nature of wisdom, temperance, religious, moral strength, capacity for compassion, etc.
Talking about the use of emotional language information for pragmatic purposes, the researchers point out that the funds supporting this kind of information can have a meaningful impact on the recipient, based on the mechanism of emotional infection. As the signs of emotional displays device, they explicitly represent these phenomena, which allows to endow the “image of the communicator” in the minds receptive audience by certain characteristics. These are the words and combinations such as “human dignity”, “charity”, “faith in the ideals”, “dream”, “truth”, “spirituality”, etc.
2. “Word-slogan,” or “political affektivy.”
These include, for example, the word “freedom”, “progress”, “national interest”, etc. This word-classifiers, causing unambiguous reaction mass audience, are abstract concepts. Employed without specifying the exact meaning, they lose a specific historical, ideological and political content. Such a vocabulary designed to “naive listener,” which often does not understand that the value of these concepts can vary depending on the overall political context. Appealing to higher values ​​- patriotism, national pride, dignity, etc., these words contain a hidden ideological evaluative positive or negative, have a suggestive impact on listeners, partially or completely blocking their rational mind. Exactly the kind of character, according to some researchers, are the specific “language of politics.”
“Loaded vocabulary” – a traditional means of rhetorical style – is also a way to customize the speech image. Affektivy act as keywords, allowing to “load” the image in the desired emotional appeal for the speaker aspect.
Describing the “rhetorical style” should be noted that in addition to “loaded” language an important role is played by stylistic devices enhance the emotional and psychological impact of speech, activating effect of suggestion and emotional “engagement” audience. These techniques are similar to the art of speech, form a distinct style drawing text of public speaking, providing a rational transformation of the logical structures in emotional. From the point of view of “self-presentation” style drawing is a very important factor in the identification of the perceiving consciousness of speech and of the pronouncing of her face. The whole complex of Rito ¬ toric emotional gain, the most typical of modern presidential rhetoric, can be divided into two groups according to their commonly used and the role that they play in the suggestive effects of oratory. [11, c.7]
The first group includes such stylistic devices, such as:
– Repeat;
– Parcelling;
– Parallel syntax;
– Design with homogeneous members;
– Emotional confrontation.
The text of these techniques have a double function: on the one hand, they act as a way to design compositional logic of discourse, a deployment of “thematic core” on the other – promotes psychological purposes (relief perception, arousal, interest, etc.) , reinforcing, emphasizing meaningful signal and generating an estimate related to the content of speech and the speaker himself.
The second group includes:
– A metaphor;
– The antithesis;
– A rhetorical question.
Giving special oratory, art, expression, making it the elements of “word game”, these tools act as “emotional signals” complement and enhance the effectiveness of PRIE mov ¬ first group. [10]
The most common means of expression are different types of verbal repetition. Their main task – to deepen the semantic aspect of speech, to provide this or that idea, the basic concept is the anchor elements in the development of thought.
Another means of expression – parcelling, understood as a division of the sentence, in which the content of the statement is passed not one, but two or more voice intonation and semantic units, one after the other after the separation pause. When parceled structures appear specific intonation, that is, a ritmomelodicheskoe registration statements, which contributes not only semantic, but also expressive actualization of individual words.
Often seen in reruns parceled designs. Parceled design reinforce repetition, set him apart.
Stylistic use of parallelism of the syntax and structures with homogeneous members share the same objectives of strengthening individual content elements of speech and fixing valuation information in the minds of the audience. Parallel structure, like repetition, update keywords, creates a special rhythmic pattern of the text, is sometimes given the nature of oratory declamation, increases the expression, thereby increasing its impact on the audience.
With detailed designs with homogeneous members as he would “share” the audience into groups, creating the illusion of communicating directly with each of them. In terms of rhetorical style such constructions take on the character of the period – typical of the classical rhetoric of syntactic construction in which the constituent elements of the content, syntax and rhythm and intonation structures are in accordance with each harmonic.
On the use of structures with similar terms (synonyms) built another classic method of rhetoric – graduation, by which is achieved in strengthening trait synonymous row.
Rhetoric is characteristic gradation of modal verbs, resulting in changing the modality of expression in the chain: the possibility – necessity – ought – a reality.
Changing the modality statements in order of increasing signs of obligation (from “possible” to “mandatory”) gives the speaker an opportunity to demonstrate “willpower” character.
Widely used in the rhetoric of emotional welcome contrast, the very form of speech, which attracts the attention of audiences and enhances semantic and stylistic effects of speech. From classic antithesis this method is different in that not opposed opposites in the strict sense, and the words, sayings, phrases, which is attributed in the context of positive and negative evaluative. Moreover, these estimates shall communicate opposition to the extreme emotional intensity, are given on the basis of the speaker arbitrary interpretation of certain phenomena, aspects of reality, facts. Receiving emotional opposition is a way updating of content and assessment elements of speech, leading to intensification of the effect of psychological pressure.
Receiving emotional opposition, obviously, can be seen as a special kind of antithesis, when all meaningful movement of speech impossible for the listener to its own estimates, since the choice of pre-set in the evaluation of updated components. Such a construction of speech allows the speaker not only impose audience his position on a particular issue. But also to establish itself as “a reliable policy,” the carrier of various “good qualities.”
By methods dialogization monologue also includes prolepsis (foresight objections), question-answer course, rhetorical dialogue.
Rhetorical tools of the second group, which can be defined as “emotional signals” do not carry such an important content-composite ¬ tional load, but an effective way to attract the attention of listeners with its bright form of speech, appealing primarily to the emotional and aesthetic realm of consciousness. Typically, these funds are combined with the methods of the first group, increasing their suggestive influence.
The metaphor may increase denial and negative evaluation opinion “implied opponent” implitsiruya reception prolepsis. The metaphor may be included in the rhetorical discourse of its own, serving as a kind of “catalyst emotional speech perception.
Fairly common stylistic device – the antithesis usually included as part of the reception of emotional opposition to amplify the emotional and stylistic sound.
Such use of antithesis in its classical version is to some extent the way “word game”, to which he resorted to enhance the emotional and logical effects opposition.
Rhetorical question, as noted, may be included in the question-counter move, increasing the emotional expressiveness of the latter. Without requiring an answer, because the answer is implicit in himself, rhetorically shapes attitudes, the desired response from those to whom it is addressed. The rhetorical question is used as an emotional exclamation, aiming to attract the audience’s attention to a particular idea, emotionally express the attitude of the speaker, to encourage the audience to share his opinion.
Characteristically, emotional exclamations as rhetorical question hardly bear substantial loads and serve only effective way to attract the listener’s attention to the very person of the speaker, acting as a “moralist.”
The same brightness and emotional political discourse give idioms, proverbs, sayings, colloquial turns of phrase (including vernacular), use of literary images, quotations, language tools of humor, irony, satire (witty comparisons inserts ironic, satirical retelling, parody, puns ).
1.3 Comparison of as one of the features of the language of political rhetoric.

One of the most prominent and widely used in political rhetoric is to compare the stylistic devices and comparative design.
By comparison understands the comparison described persons, characters, events, pictures with images, the majority of which are familiar to the reader. The result of this comparison, depicted is specified, it becomes more obvious and dramatic. [47, c.140]
Comparisons can be classified from different points of view.
Decided to allocate two sets of comparisons:
1. accurate comparison, no evaluative elements, the criterion of selection is the use of a neutral style;
Vast as the universe …
… As in the siege of Leningrad
Kennedy Jr. … etc.
2. Comparison containing evaluative element, or apply to a specific style (sublime, familiarity).
Mulish …
Thin as a blade of grass … etc.
The structure comparison are three components:
1) is being compared (the subject of comparison);
2) to compare with (object reference);
3) the basis of comparison
In terms of the way their introduction to the text in Russian emit:
1) The comparison indicates equality, similarity, similarity is introduced by:
a) union as;
b) adverbs like, like, like;
c) an adjective like …
2) a comparison can also input to text verbs sound like, look like, be like …
Concept of private property will be treated as created through honest labor value (Medvedev).
The use of force should be exceptional as well as the use of the death penalty (Vladimir Putin).
… Many of our neighbors are watching us, perceive Ukraine as a regional leader (Yushchenko) [11]
It should be remembered that in many cases these turnovers are not only set phrases specific data words, but the images and, therefore, can be expressed in other language tools.
In English, the comparison is a formal expression in the form of words such as as, such as, as if, like, seem, etc.
The same comparative aspect can be expressed constructs with adjectives and adverbs to a certain degree of comparison.
Let’s cut domestic spending to the lowest level it’s been since Dwight Eisenhower was President (Barack Obama)
Comparison – one of the most common means of achieving the imagery in the speech.
Assignment to lexical comparison tools shaped to some extent arbitrary, since it is implemented not only at the lexical level, the comparison can be expressed in word and phrase, and the comparative turnover and subordinate clause, etc.
In form of comparison can be direct and negative, indeterminate, and deployed, as well as connecting.
In direct comparison depicted compared with any other phenomenon, like them, also gives a direct comparison of the affirmative.
And I would like to say a special word to our religious leaders. You know, I’m proud of the fact that the United States has more house of worship per capita than any country in the world. (Bill Clinton)
Negative comparisons are based on the principle of external branches of the same phenomenon from another, however, internally, as well as other comparison, bring them closer, explaining one another. In negative comparisons, one thing is opposed to another.
The process of unification of the Federation – a complicated matter, but otherwise, in some cases – I want to stress that not always and not everywhere, but in some cases – we will not be able to concentrate the resources of the state to control the huge and unique in composition territory (Putin ).
Comparisons indicate several common features in the compared objects are called to deploy.
In uncertain comparisons given the highest rating of the described, does not work, however, the particular figure of speech.
There is this kind of comparison as the mounting. Usually these mounting comparison in a specific order: first, given the subject, and then, when the exhausted topic related to the subject, after the union of the word “so” the image of a.
Visual possibilities comparisons are directly related to their structural identity. [14] By comparison, all of the structure can be divided into several types:
• Comparative pace;
• Comparative clauses;
• Comparisons formed with adjectives;
• Comparisons formed with proverbs and sayings;
• Comparisons deployed.
More detailed examples of how comparative constructions, and other means of expression of presidential rhetoric will be presented in the practical section of this thesis.

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